But, while they are both highly successful, these two structures leave a lot of important questions unanswered. In this book, jim baggott describes "the road less travelled": an approach which takes relativity as its starting point, and leads to a structure called Loop Quantum Gravity. What we need is a quantum theory of gravity.
Approaches to formulating such a theory have primarily followed two paths. Today we are blessed with two extraordinarily successful theories of physics. The discovery of gravitational waves at the LIGO observatory in the US and then Virgo, in Italy is only the most recent of this theory's many triumphs. The second is quantum mechanics.
Quantum Space: Loop Quantum Gravity and the Search for the Structure of Space, Time, and the Universe #ad - One leads to string theory, which has for long been fashionable, and about which much has been written. But string Theory has become mired in problems. The first is albert einstein's general theory of relativity, which describes the large-scale behaviour of matter in a curved spacetime. They are also based on two different interpretations of space and time, and are therefore fundamentally incompatible.
Einstein's Unfinished Revolution: The Search for What Lies Beyond the QuantumPenguin Press #ad - But for a century it has also been the problem child of science: it has been plagued by intense disagreements between its inventors, strange paradoxes, and implications that seem like the stuff of fantasy. Whether it's schrödinger's cat--a creature that is simultaneously dead and alive--or a belief that the world does not exist independently of our observations of it, quantum theory challenges our fundamental assumptions about reality.
There is more to quantum physics, waiting to be discovered. In einstein's unfinished revolution, Lee Smolin brings us a step closer to resolving one of the greatest scientific controversies of our age. Along the way, he illuminates the existing theories that might solve these problems, guiding us towards a vision of the quantum that embraces common sense realism.
It is the basis of our understanding of atoms, and so much else, radiation, from elementary particles and basic forces to the behavior of materials. Our task--if we are to have simple answers to our simple questions about the universe we live in--must be to go beyond quantum mechanics to a description of the world on an atomic scale that makes sense.
Einstein's Unfinished Revolution: The Search for What Lies Beyond the Quantum #ad - In this vibrant and accessible book, introducing the stories of the experiments and figures that have transformed our understanding of the universe, Smolin takes us on a journey through the basics of quantum physics, before wrestling with the puzzles and conundrums that the quantum world presents. If we are to have any hope of completing the revolution that Einstein began nearly a century ago, we must go beyond quantum mechanics to find a theory that will give us a complete description of nature.
In einstein's unfinished revolution, theoretical physicist Lee Smolin provocatively argues that the problems which have bedeviled quantum physics since its inception are unsolved and unsolvable, for the simple reason that the theory is incomplete.
The Second Kind of Impossible: The Extraordinary Quest for a New Form of MatterSimon & Schuster #ad - It begins with a curious geometric pattern that inspires two theoretical physicists to propose a radically new type of matter—one that raises the possibility of new materials with never before seen properties, but that violates laws set in stone for centuries. Shortlisted for the 2019 royal society insight Investment Science Book Prize* One of the most fascinating scientific detective stories of the last fifty years, an exciting quest for a new form of matter.
Their quest culminates in a daring expedition to a distant corner of the Earth, in pursuit of tiny fragments of a meteorite forged at the birth of the solar system. The second kind of impossible is the story of Steinhardt’s thirty-five-year-long quest to challenge conventional wisdom. The underlying science is important, simple, and beautiful—and Steinhardt’s firsthand account is “packed with discovery, exhilaration, disappointment, and persistence.
The Second Kind of Impossible: The Extraordinary Quest for a New Form of Matter #ad - . This book is a front-row seat to history as it is made” Nature. Steinhardt dubs this new form of matter “quasicrystal. The rest of the scientific community calls it simply impossible. A riveting tale of derring-do” Nature, this book reads like James Gleick’s Chaos combined with an Indiana Jones adventure.
When leading princeton physicist Paul Steinhardt began working in the 1980s, scientists thought they knew all the conceivable forms of matter.
Something Deeply Hidden: Quantum Worlds and the Emergence of SpacetimeDutton #ad - Already hailed as a masterpiece, something Deeply Hidden shows for the first time that facing up to the essential puzzle of quantum mechanics utterly transforms how we think about space and time. His reconciling of quantum mechanics with Einstein’s theory of relativity changes, well, everything. The many worlds theory of quantum behavior says that every time there is a quantum event, a world splits off with everything in it the same, except in that other world the quantum event didn't happen.
Putting his professional reputation on the line with this audacious yet entirely reasonable book, Carroll says that the crisis can now come to an end. Rarely does a book so fully reorganize how we think about our place in the universe. Step-by-step in carroll's uniquely lucid way, he tackles the major objections to this otherworldly revelation until his case is inescapably established.
Something Deeply Hidden: Quantum Worlds and the Emergence of Spacetime #ad - Academics discourage students from working on the "dead end" of quantum foundations. Quantum mechanics has always had obvious gaps—which have come to be simply ignored. There are many, many Sean Carrolls. We just have to accept that there is more than one of us in the universe. Instant new york times bestsellera science news favorite science book of 2019As you read these words, copies of you are being created.
Many of every one of us.
Until the End of Time: Mind, Matter, and Our Search for Meaning in an Evolving UniverseKnopf #ad - Greene takes us on a journey across time, from our most refined understanding of the universe's beginning, to the closest science can take us to the very end. He explores how life and mind emerged from the initial chaos, the quest for truth, myth, and how our minds, religion, creative expression, science, seek in different ways to give meaning to experience: in narrative, in coming to understand their own impermanence, and our longing for the eternal.
Through a series of nested stories that explain distinct but interwoven layers of reality--from quantum mechanics to consciousness to black holes--Greene provides us with a clearer sense of how we came to be, a finer picture of where we are now, and a firmer understanding of where we are headed. From the world-renowned physicist and best-selling author of The Elegant Universe comes this captivating exploration of deep time and humanity's search for purpose.
Until the End of Time: Mind, Matter, and Our Search for Meaning in an Evolving Universe #ad - Until the end of time is Brian Greene's breathtaking new exploration of the cosmos and our quest to understand it. With this grand tour of the universe, beginning to end, Brian Greene allows us all to grasp and appreciate our fleeting but utterly exquisite moment in the cosmos.
Quantum Strangeness: Wrestling with Bell's Theorem and the Ultimate Nature of Reality The MIT PressThe MIT Press #ad - It never explains. The fastest route to the insight into the ultimate nature of reality revealed by quantum mechanics, Greenstein writes, is through Bell's Theorem, which concerns reality at the quantum level; and Bell's 1964 discovery drives Greenstein's quest. Along the way, entanglement, he discusses spin, and quantum teleportation, experimental metaphysics, often with easy-to-grasp analogies.
Greenstein recounts a scientific odyssey that begins with Einstein, continues with Bell, and culminates with today's push to develop an industry of quantum machines. Astrophysicist george Greenstein has been both fascinated and confused by quantum mechanics for his entire career. But quantum mechanics steadfastly refuses to speak of many things; it deals in probabilities rather than giving explicit descriptions.
Quantum Strangeness: Wrestling with Bell's Theorem and the Ultimate Nature of Reality The MIT Press #ad - Its philosophical implications are earthshaking. Even now, many years after the creation of quantum mechanics, physicists continue to argue about it. The theory lies at the heart of modern society. We have known for decades that the world of the quantum was strange, Greenstein says, but, not until John Bell came along did we know just how strange.
A physicist's efforts to understand the enigma that is quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics is one of the glories of our age.
Beyond Weird: Why Everything You Thought You Knew about Quantum Physics Is DifferentUniversity of Chicago Press #ad - It is our world, and if anything deserves to be called “weird, ” it’s us. Anyone who is not shocked by quantum theory has not understood it. Since niels bohr said this many years ago, quantum mechanics has only been getting more shocking. The quantum world Ball shows us isn’t a different world. An exhilarating tour of the contemporary quantum landscape, Beyond Weird is a book about what quantum physics really means—and what it doesn’t.
Over the past decade it has become clear that quantum physics is less a theory about particles and waves, than a theory about information and knowledge—about what can be known, uncertainty and fuzziness, and how we can know it. Discoveries and experiments over the past few decades have called into question the meanings and limits of space and time, and, ultimately, cause and effect, of knowledge itself.
Beyond Weird: Why Everything You Thought You Knew about Quantum Physics Is Different #ad - We now realize that it’s not really telling us that “weird” things happen out of sight, on the tiniest level, in the atomic world: rather, everything is quantum. Science writer philip ball offers an up-to-date, accessible account of the quest to come to grips with the most fundamental theory of physical reality, and to explain how its counterintuitive principles underpin the world we experience.
But if quantum mechanics is correct, what seems obvious and right in our everyday world is built on foundations that don’t seem obvious or right at all—or even possible.
Three Roads to Quantum GravityBasic Books #ad - Provocative, original, and unsettling. New york review of Books"An excellent writer, a creative thinker. Nature. It would be hard to imagine a better guide to this difficult subject. Scientific americanin three roads to Quantum Gravity, Lee Smolin provides an accessible overview of the attempts to build a final "theory of everything.
He explains in simple terms what scientists are talking about when they say the world is made from exotic entities such as loops, epiphanies, and black holes and tells the fascinating stories behind these discoveries: the rivalries, strings, and intrigues he witnessed firsthand.
Mass: The quest to understand matter from Greek atoms to quantum fieldsOxford University Press #ad - But science has discovered that the foundations of our Universe are not as solid or as certain and dependable as we might have once imagined. The english physicist Paul Dirac called this 'the dream of philosophers'. We imagine that we should eventually run up against some kind of ultimately fundamental, indivisible type of stuff, the building blocks from which everything in the Universe is made.
It is solid; it has mass. As a few of the philosophers of ancient greece once speculated, matter comes in 'lumps', nearly two and a half thousand years ago, and science has relentlessly peeled away successive layers of matter to reveal its ultimate constituents. Surely, we can't keep doing this indefinitely.
Mass: The quest to understand matter from Greek atoms to quantum fields #ad - They are instead built from ghosts and phantoms, of a peculiar quantum kind. Everything around us is made of 'stuff', to books, from planets, to our own bodies. Whatever it is, we call it matter or material substance. But what is matter, exactly? We are taught in school that matter is not continuous, but discrete.
And, at some point on this exciting journey of scientific discovery, we lost our grip on the reassuringly familiar concept of mass. How did this happen? how did the answers to our questions become so complicated and so difficult to comprehend? In Mass Jim Baggott explains how we come to find ourselves here, the origin of mass, confronted by a very different understanding of the nature of matter, and its implications for our understanding of the material world.
Ranging from the greek philosophers leucippus and democritus, to the development of quantum field theory and the discovery of a Higgs boson-like particle, and their theories of atoms and void, he explores our changing understanding of the nature of matter, and the fundamental related concept of mass.
Philosophy of Physics: Quantum Theory Princeton Foundations of Contemporary PhilosophyPrinceton University Press #ad - A proper physical theory should clearly describe what is there and what it does―yet standard textbooks present quantum mechanics as a predictive recipe in search of a physical theory. In contrast, rimini, maudlin explores three proper theories that recover the quantum predictions: the indeterministic wavefunction collapse theory of Ghirardi, and Weber; the deterministic particle theory of deBroglie and Bohm; and the conceptually challenging Many Worlds theory of Everett.
The briefest, and most refined account of his influential approach to the subject, clearest, the book will be invaluable to all students of philosophy and physics. Quantum mechanics holds a unique place in the history of physics. Maudlin argues that the very term “quantum theory” is a misnomer. A sophisticated and original introduction to the philosophy of quantum mechanics from one of the world’s leading philosophers of physicsIn this book, offers a sophisticated, Tim Maudlin, one of the world’s leading philosophers of physics, original introduction to the philosophy of quantum mechanics.
Philosophy of Physics: Quantum Theory Princeton Foundations of Contemporary Philosophy #ad - . It has produced the most accurate predictions of any scientific theory, more astonishing, but, there has never been any agreement about what the theory implies about physical reality. Each offers a radically different proposal for the nature of physical reality, but Maudlin shows that none of them are what they are generally taken to be.
A World Beyond Physics: The Emergence and Evolution of LifeOxford University Press #ad - Evolution propagates this burgeoning organization. Among the estimated one hundred billion solar systems in the known universe, evolving life is surely abundant. Since newton, we have turned to physics to assess reality. Living cells are "machines" that construct and assemble their own working parts. The emergence of such systems-the origin of life problem-was probably a spontaneous phase transition to self-reproduction in complex enough prebiotic systems.
If life is abundant in the universe, propagating, this self-constructing, exploding diversity takes us beyond physics to biospheres everywhere. That evolution is a process of "becoming" in each case. Evolving living creatures, by existing, create new niches into which yet further new creatures can emerge.
A World Beyond Physics: The Emergence and Evolution of Life #ad - How did life start? is the evolution of life describable by any physics-like laws? Stuart Kauffman's latest book offers an explanation-beyond what the laws of physics can explain-of the progression from a complex chemical environment to molecular reproduction, metabolism and to early protocells, and further evolution to what we recognize as life.
But physics alone cannot tell us where we came from, how we arrived, and why our world has evolved past the point of unicellular organisms to an extremely complex biosphere. Building on concepts from his work as a complex systems researcher at the Santa Fe Institute, Kauffman focuses in particular on the idea of cells constructing themselves and introduces concepts such as "constraint closure.
Living systems are defined by the concept of "organization" which has not been focused on in enough in previous works. Cells are autopoetic systems that build themselves: they literally construct their own constraints on the release of energy into a few degrees of freedom that constitutes the very thermodynamic work by which they build their own self creating constraints.